This is the page for all my resources and documents for the Gospel according to Matthew. The first section contains documents that survey the entire book. The next section is broken down by each passage. Click the label of any passage to expand for access to documents and information about each individual passage. Feel free to use and distribute any information you find helpful as long as you give credit where appropriate.
General Documents
Survey Videos
Individual Passages
Click on each passage to expand for more or less information
1:1-2:23 Prologue
3:1-4:25 The Gospel of the Kingdom
3:1-4:11 Preparation for Jesus' Ministry
  • 3:1-12 John the Baptist's Ministry
  • 3:13-17 Jesus is Baptized
  • 4:1-11 Jesus Overcomes Temptation
4:12-25 The Beginning of Jesus' Ministry
  • 4:12-17 Jesus Preaches the Kingdom
  • 4:18-22 The First Disciples
  • 4:23-25 Jesus Preaches and Demonstrates the Kingdom
5:1-7:29 Teaching about Discipleship
5:1-2 Introduction to the Sermon on the Mount
  • 5:1-2 Intro to the Sermon
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    1-2 Introduction to the Sermon on the Mount
    1a-b Jesus went up on the mountainside to address the crowd
    1a Seeing the crowds
    1b He went up into the mountainside
    1c-d He sat down and the disciples gathered to Him
    1c After He sat down
    1d His disciples went to Him
    2 He taught the Sermon on the Mount
    2a-b He began to speak and taught them
    2a Opening His mouth
    2b He taught them
    2c By saying:
    5:3-7:27 The Sermon on the Mount [see the following sections]
5:3-16 Introduction to the Righteousness of the Kingdom
  • 5:3-10 The Beatitudes
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    3 The Kingdom of Heaven is the blessing for the poor in spirit
    3a Blessed are the poor in spirit
    3b Because the Kingdom of Heaven is theirs
    4 Those who mourn are blessed with comfort
    4a Blessed are the ones mourning
    4b Because these ones will be comforted
    5 Those who are meek/gentle are blessed with inheriting the earth
    5a Blessed are the meek/gentle
    5b Because these ones will inherit the earth
    6 Those who pursue righteousness are blessed with attaining it
    6a Blessed are the ones hungering and thirsting for righteousness
    6b Because these ones will be satisfied
    7 Those who are merciful are blessed with receiving mercy
    7a Blessed are the merciful
    7b Because these ones will be shown mercy
    8 Those who are pure in heart are blessed with the vision of God
    8a Blessed are the pure in heart
    8b Because these ones will see God
    9 Those who are peacemakers are blessed with having the character of God
    9a Blessed are the peacemakers
    9b Becaue these ones will be called sons of God
    10 The Kingdom of Heaven is the blessing for those persecuted for righteousness
    10a Blessed are the ones persecuted on behalf of righteousness
    10b Because the Kingdom of Heaven is theirs
  • 5:11-12 The Reward for Enduring Persecution
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    11-12c Those persecuted for Christ's sake are blessed
    11 You are blessed when people persecute you for my sake
    11a You are blessed
    11b-e The occasions when you are blessed
    11b When they insult you
    11c And they persecute [you]
    11d-e And they falsely slander you because of me
    11d And they say all kinds of evil things against you because of me
    11e By lying
    12a-c Respond with Joy
    12a-b Be happy about it
    12a Rejoice
    12b And be glad
    12c Reason: Because your reward is great in heaven
    12d Reason: Because, they persecuted the prophets before you in the same way
  • 5:13-16 Salt and Light
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    13 You are like salt, so, make a difference
    13a You are the salt of the earth
    13b-f Therefore, make a difference in the world
    13b If the salt loses its taste
    13c-f It cannot go back to being useful [again]
    13c In what way will it become salty?
    13d-f It won't be useful, but will be discarded
    13d It will no longer be capable of anything
    13e-f Except being discarded and disdained
    13e Except being thrown outside
    13f Purpose: in order to be trampled by people
    14-16 You are like light, so, be conspicuous for good
    14a You are the light of the world
    14b-16 Therefore, let your good works be conspicuous, for God's glory
    14b-15 Conspicuous things will be noticed
    14b-c A city on a hill cannot be hidden
    14b A city is not able to be hidden
    14c Reason: being on top of a hill
    15 No one hides a light, but rather uses it to illuminate things
    15a-b Neg: No one hides a lamp
    15a No one lights a lamp
    15b And places it under a basket
    15c-d Pos: Rather, they position it to illuminate things
    15c But he places it on the lampstand
    15d And it shines on all the things in the house
    16 In the same way, let your good works be conspicuous, so God will be glorified
    16a In the same way, let your light shine before people
    16b-c Purpose: so that they will glorify God for your good works
    16b So that they may see your good works
    16c And glorify your Father in heaven
5:17-48 The True Fulfillment of the Law
  • 5:17-20 Jesus' Relationship with the Law
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    17-18 The Law and Prophets have continuing significance
    17 I have not come to annul the Law and Prophets, but fulfill them.
    17a-c Don't think I will annul the Law and Prophets
    17a Do not presume
    17b-c That I have come to annul the Law and Prophets
    17b That I have come
    17c Purpose: In order to annul the Law and Prophets
    17d-g I won't annul the Law and Prophets, but fulfill them
    17d-e Neg: I have not come to annul the Law and Prophets
    17d I have not come
    17e Purpose: In order to annul [them]
    17f-g Pos: Rather, I have come to fulfill the Law and Prophets
    17f But rather [I have come]
    17g Purpose: In order to fulfill [them]
    18 The Law is as long lasting as creation/this age
    18a For truly I am telling you
    18b-d The Law will not disappear until creation disappears
    18b Until heaven and earth would cease to exist
    Nothing will disappear from the Law until all is completed
    18c Even one small letter or smallest mark will certainly not cease to exist from the Law
    18d Until all things would take place
    19-20 The Law and Prophets are in conformity with the Kingdom
    19 The Law is in line with the Kingdom
    19a-c Neg: Rejecting the Law is not in line with the Kingdom
    19a-b If someone denies or downplays the Law and teaches the same
    19a Therefore, if someone would do away with one of the smallest of these commands
    19b And would teach people likewise
    This one will be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven
    19d-f Pos: Keeping the Law is in line with the Kingdom
    19d-e But whoever keeps and teaches the Law
    19d But whoever would do [them]
    19e And would teach [likewise]
    19f This one will be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven
    20 Righteousness is a requirement of the Kingdom
    20a For truly I am saying to you
    20b-c You won't enter the Kingdom unless your righteousness is much greater
    20b That unless your righteousness significantly surpasses the magnitude of the Scribes and of the Pharisees
    20c You will certainly not enter into the Kingdom of Heaven
  • 5:21-26 Avoid Not Only Murder, but Hate
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    21 Neg: You have heard that murder is forbidden and punished
    21a You have heard
    21b-e the Ancient Law forbids and punishes murder
    21b That it was said to the people of ancient times
    21c-e Don't murder, because murder is judged
    21c Do not murder
    21d-e Because murder is liable to judgment
    21d Whoever would murder
    21d This one will be liable to judgment
    22-26 Pos: I am saying that harming people in other ways is also liable to punishment
    22a And I am saying to you
    22b-26 Harming other people is also liable to judgment
    22b-h Hatred and its expressions are also liable to judgment
    22b That everyone furious with his brother will be liable to judgment
    22c-h Even expressing hatred to others is liable to judgment
    22c-e Verbal abuse is liable to judgment
    22c-d If someone verbally abuses another
    22c Whoever would say to his brother
    22d Raka - you fool/numbskull
    22e This one will be liable to the Sanhedrin
    22f-h Offensive insult is liable to judgment
    22f-g If someone makes an even more offensive insult
    22f But whoever would say
    22g Moron - foolish/stupid
    22h This one will be liable to the hell of fire
    23-26 Wronging others in various ways is liable to judgment
    23-24 Don't try to have fellowship with God, while having wronged someone
    23 If you want fellowship with God, while having wronged someone
    23a Therefore, if you would offer your gift on the altar
    23b-c And you remember you have wronged a brother
    23b And there you remember
    23c That your brother has something against you
    24 Be reconciled to your brother before offering your gift
    24a Leave your gift there before the altar
    24b-c First, go and be reconciled to your brother
    24b And go first
    24c Purpose: to be reconciled to your brother
    24d-e And then return and offer your gift
    24d And then, coming [back]
    24e Offer your gift
    25-26 Be reconciled to the one you have wronged
    25a-c Be reconciled quickly with the one you have wronged
    25a-b Be reconciled quickly with your opponent
    25a Be [command]
    25b Making friends with your opponent quickly
    25c While you are with him on the road
    25d-26 In order that he not bring you to exact justice for your wrong
    25d-f So that you are not turned over to the justice authorities
    25d In order that the opponent will not hand you over to the judge
    25e And the judge will hand you over to the bailiff
    25f And you will be thrown into prison
    26 I am warning you that justice will not be lenient on you
    26a I am saying to you truly
    26b-c You won't be released until you have paid the full debt
    26b You will certainly not go out from there
    26c Until you will have paid back the last penny
  • 5:27-30 Avoid Not Only Adultery, but Lust
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    27 Neg: You know the Law said do not commit adultery
    27a You have heard
    27b-c The Law says don't commit adultery
    27b That it was said
    27c Do no commit adultery
    28-30 Pos: I am saying that lusting is analogous to adultery
    28a But I am saying to you
    28b-30 Lusting after a woman is analogous to adultery
    28b-d Looking at a woman in order to lust is committing adultery in your heart
    28b-c Everyone looking at a woman with the purpose of lusting after her
    28b Everyone seeing a woman
    28c With the purpose of lusting after her
    28d This one has already committed adultery with her in his heart
    29-30 Therefore, take radical steps to avoid sin
    29 Illustration from an eye
    29a-c If your eye causes sin, get rid of it
    29a If your right eye causes you to sin
    29b-c Tear it out and throw it away
    29b Take it out
    29c And throw [it] from you
    29d-f It is better to live without it than to be condemned with it
    29d For it is more advantageous for you
    29e-f To lose one part in order for your entire body to avoid hell
    29e That one of your members be destroyed
    29f And your entire body not be thrown into hell
    30 Illustration from a hand
    30a-c If your hand causes sin, get rid of it
    30a And if your right hand cause you to sin
    30b-c Cut it off and throw it away
    30b Cut it off
    30c And throw [it] from you
    30d-f It is better to live without it than to be condemned with it
    30d For it is more advantageous for you
    30e-f To lose one part in order for your entire body to avoid hell
    30e That one of your members be destroyed
    30f And your entire body not go away into hell
  • 5:31-32 Avoid Divorce
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    31 Neg: The Law spoke about the proper procedure for divorce
    31a It was said:
    31b-c Whoever divorces should give a written statement of divorce
    31b Whoever divorces his wife
    31c Let him give to her a written statement of divorce
    32 Pos: Rather, I'm saying that divorce, except for sexual immorality, is not legitimate
    32a But I am saying to you
    32b-e Divorce, except for sexual immorality, causes adultery
    32b-c Everyone divorcing his wife except for sexual immorality causes her to be an adulteress
    32b That everyone divorcing his wife except for a matter of sexual immorality
    32c He is making her to be an adulteress
    32d-e Whoever marries the divorced woman commits adultery
    32d And whoever marries the divorced woman
    32e He commits adultery
  • 5:33-37 Avoid Not Only Oaths, but Deceitfulness
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    33 Neg: You have heard that you should keep your oaths
    33a Again, you heard:
    33b-d The ancient Law forbids swearing falsely and commands keeping oaths
    33b That it was said to the people of ancient times
    33c-d Don't swear falsely, but keep your oaths
    33c Do not swear falsely
    33d But fulfill your oaths to the Lord
    34-37 Pos: But I am saying that you should not swear oaths at all
    34a But I am saying to you
    34b-37 Don't swear any oath, but rather, keep your simple word
    34b-36 Neg: Don't swear any oath, calling on things beyond your control
    34b Do not swear an oath at all
    34c-36 Don't swear by things you cannot control
    34c-d Don't swear by heaven, because it is God's throne
    34c Neither [swear an oath] by heaven
    34d Reason: Because it is the throne of God
    35a-b Neither by the earth, because it is God's footstool
    35a Neither [swear an oath] by the earth
    35b Reason: Because it is the footstool of His feet
    35c-d Neither by Jerusalem, because it is the King's city
    35c Neither [swear an oath] by Jerusalem
    35d Reason: Because it is the city of the great King
    37 Pos: Give a simple promise and keep your word
    37a-b Let your word be simple, and keep your word
    37a Let your word Yes be Yes
    37b [Let your word] No [be] No
    37c That which goes beyond these is from evil/the evil one
  • 5:38-42 Don't Just Punish Evil, but Give Good
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    38 Neg: You have heard that you can exact strict retribution
    38a You have heard
    38b-d That the Law authorized exacting retributive justice
    38b That it was said
    38c-d Eye for eye and tooth for tooth
    38c An eye in exchange for an eye
    38d And a tooth in exchange for a tooth
    39-42 Pos: But I am saying that you can also be gracious and generous
    39a But I am saying to you
    39b-42 Seek to be gracious, good, and generous
    39b-41 Be gracious and good to the one harming you
    39b Neg: Do not be hostile toward the evildoer
    39c-41 Pos: Rather, be lenient and generous
    39c-d Turn the other cheek
    39c But whoever strikes you on your right cheek
    39d Also turn the other one to him
    40 Give your cloak in addition to your tunic
    40a And to the one who wants to sue you and to take your tunic
    40b Permit also [your] cloak to him
    41 Go the extra mile
    41a And whoever requisitions/compels you for one mile
    41b Go two [miles] with him
    42 Be generous to the one begging from you
    42a Pos: Give to the one asking you
    42b Neg: And do not turn away from/reject the one wanting to borrow from you
  • 5:43-48 Love Your Enemies
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    43 Neg: You have heard the command to love neighbor and assumed this meant hate enemies
    43a You have heard
    43b-d The Law commanded love of neighbor, and it was assumed this excluded enemies
    43b That it was said
    43c-d Love your neighbor and hate your enemy
    43c Love your neighbor
    43d And hate your enemy
    44-48 But I am saying that you should be gracious and generous even to enemies
    44a But I am saying to you
    44b-48 Be gracious and generous to all, just like God
    44b-47 Go beyond strict reciprocity to grace, just like God does
    44b-45 Do good to your enemies, just like God does
    44b-c Love and pray for your enemies that harm you
    44b Love your enemies
    44c And pray on behalf of those persecuting you
    45 Purpose: So that you will conform yourself to God's character
    45a In order that you may be sons of your Father in Heaven
    45b-c God blesses all people, even bad ones
    45b Because He causes His sun to rise over evil ones and good ones
    45c He causes it to rain over righteous ones and unrighteous ones
    46-47 Only responding in kind is not virtuous
    46 Only loving those that love you is not virtuous
    46a-b What is virtuous about loving only those that love you?
    46a For if you love the ones loving you
    46b What reward do you have?
    46c Are not the tax collectors doing the same thing?
    47 Only greeting your brothers is not exceptional
    47a-b What is exceptional about only welcoming your brothers?
    47a And if you only welcome your brothers
    47b What exceptional thing are you doing?
    47c Are not the gentiles doing the same thing?
    48 Therefore, be perfect as your Heavenly Father is perfect
    48a Therefore, you, be perfect
    48b As your Heavenly Father is perfect
6:1-18 Don't Do Righteousness Just to be Seen
  • 6:1-4 Give Alms Rightly
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    1 Charity done for the sake of publicity and image is not pleasing to God
    1a-c Be careful not to do charity for the sake of publicity and image
    1a Pay attention/Be alert/Be conscientious!
    1b-c Don't do charity for publicity and acclaim
    1b Not to do your righteousness before people
    1c Purpose: In order to be seen by them
    1d-e Charity done in the wrong manner/attitude has no reward
    1d If you don't do otherwise
    1e You don't have a reward from your Heavenly Father
    2-4 Therefore, do charity in a manner and attitude that gains true heavenly reward
    2 Don't do charity for the reward of public acclaim, which is worthless
    2a-d Don't do charity for public acclamation, like hypocrites
    2a Therefore, when you do acts of charity
    2b-d Don't publicize your charity like hypocrites do
    2b Do not blow a trumpet before you
    2c-d Like hypocrites who do it for publicity and glory
    2c Like the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets
    2d Purpose: in order that they would be glorified by people
    2e-f I emphasize that this is all the reward they will get
    2e Truly I am saying to you
    2f They have fully received their reward
    3-4 Do your charity in God's sight, for His reward, which is eternal
    3a When you are doing acts of charity
    3b-4 Don't publicize them in order that you will receive God's reward
    3b Do not let your left [hand] know what your right [hand] is doing
    4 Purpose: So that your private righteousness will be rewarded by God
    4a In order that your acts of charity may be in secret
    4b And your Father, Who is seeing in secret, will recompense/reward you
  • 6:5-15 Pray Rightly
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    5-6 Don't pray for public acclaim, but to please God
    5 Neg: Don't pray for the sake of public acclaim
    5a-g Praying like the hypocrites - for the sake of publicity - is not pleasing to God
    5a-c Be careful not to pray for the sake of publicity and image
    5a When you pray
    5b-c Don't pray for public acclamation, like hypocrites
    5b Do not be
    5c Like the hypocrites [are]
    5d-g Reason: Because they pray for the sake of publicity and glory
    5d-f Because they love to pray in front of others
    5d Because they love
    5e-f To pray in prominent public places
    5e While standing in the synagogues and on the corners of streets
    5f To pray
    5g Purpose: in order that they may appear to the people [to be pious]
    5h-i I emphasize that this is all the reward they will get
    5h I am saying to you truly
    5i They have fully received their reward
    6 Pos: Pray to please God
    6a-d Pray to your Father in secret
    6a When you pray
    6b-d Pray to your Father in secret, away from observation
    6b Go into your inner room
    6c-d Pray to your Father in a private place
    6c Locking your door
    6d Pray to your Father, Who is in Heaven
    6e And your Father, Who is seeing in secret, will recompense/reward you
    7-8 Don't pray with unthoughtful, superfluous babbling
    7 The Gentiles bad example of babbling prayer
    7a-c Don't follow the Gentiles' example of unthoughtful formulaic prayers
    7a When praying
    7b-c Don't spew an abundance of unthoughtful, meaningless words
    7b Do not speak an abundance of unthoughtful, meaningless words
    7c As the gentiles [do]
    7d-e Because they think that abundance of words is helpful
    7d For they suppose
    7e That they will be listened to because of the length of their speech
    8 Don't follow their unprofitable example
    8a Therefore, do not be like them
    8b-c Reason: Superfluous words are not necessary or helpful
    8b For your Father knows a need which you have
    8c Before you ask Him
    9-15 How to pray
    9-13 A model prayer
    9a Therefore, you, pray in this way
    The Lord's Prayer
    9b Personal address: Our Father, the One in Heaven
    9c-13 Model petitions to pray:
    9c Let Your Name be revered as holy
    10 Let Your Kingdom purposes take place
    10a Let Your Kingdom come
    10b-c Let Your will be done
    10b Let Your will come to pass also upon Earth
    10c As [it is done] in Heaven
    11 Give to us today our necessary food
    12 Forgive our sins, as we forgive
    12a And forgive to us our debts/guilt of sins
    12b As we ourselves also have forgiven to those in debt/guilt to us
    13 Keep us from temptation and evil
    13a Neg: Do not bring us into temptation
    13b Pos: But rescue us from evil/the evil one
    14-15 Prayer is connected with forgiveness
    14 Pos: If you forgive, you will be forgiven
    14a For, if you forgive to people their transgressions/wrongdoings
    14b Your Heavenly Father will also forgive to you
    15 Neg: If you don't forgive, you won't be forgiven
    15a But if you do not forgive people
    15b Neither will your Father forgive your transgressions/wrongdoings
  • 6:16-18 Fast Rightly
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    16 Neg: Fasting done for the sake of publicity and image is not pleasing to God
    16a-c Be careful not to fast for the sake of publicity and image
    16a When you fast
    16b-c Don't fast for public acclamation, like hypocrites
    16b Do not be those who look gloomy and sullen
    16c As the hypocrites do
    16d-g The hypocrites fast for the worthless reward of public acclaim
    16d-e They do it for publicity and glory
    16d For they distort the appearance of their faces
    16e Purpose: in order that they may appear to people to be fasting
    16f-g I emphasize that this is all the reward they will get
    16f I am saying to you truly
    16g They have fully received their reward
    17-18 Pos: Do your fasting in God's sight, for His reward, which is eternal
    17-18b Don't fast for public acclaim, but to please God
    17a But when fasting
    17b-18b Don't fast for public acclaim, but for the true reward
    17b-c Don't show you are fasting by your appearance
    17b You, anoint your head
    17c And wash your face
    18a-b Purpose: in order that you would get the true reward from God
    18a Neg: in order that you would not appear to people to be fasting
    18b Pos: but [in order that you would be apparent] to your Father, Who is in Heaven
    18c And your Father, Who is seeing in secret, will recompense/reward you
6:19-34 The Priorities of the Kingdom
  • 6:19-24 Store Up Treasure in Heaven
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    19-21 Your ultimate treasure will determine your heart
    19-20 Wisely choose your ultimate treasure
    19 Neg: Don't pursue unsafe, insecure, temporary treasure
    19a Do not treasure up treasure for yourself on the earth
    19b-d Where it is unsafe and insecure, i.e. temporary
    19b Where moth and corrosion destroy
    19c-d And treasure is stolen
    19c And where thieves break in
    19d And they steal
    20 Pos: Rather, pursue safe, secure, eternal treasure
    20a Rather, treasure up treasure for yourself in heaven
    20b-d Where it is safe and secure, i.e. eternal
    20b Where neither moth nor corrosion destroy
    20c-d And treasure is not stolen
    20c And where thieves do not break in
    20d And neither do they steal
    21 Reason: Your heart automatically will follow your treasure
    21a For wherever your treasure is
    21b You heart will also be there
    22-23 Your ultimate focus and purpose determines your life
    22-23b What you focus upon determines your life
    22a The lamp of the body is the eye
    22b-23b Your life depends on what you ultimately focus upon
    22b-c Pos: If the focus of your life is good, your life will be good
    22b Therefore, if your eye is without guile/straightforward
    22c Your whole body will be illuminated
    23a-b Neg: If the focus of your life is bad, your life will be bad
    23a But if your eye is evil/diseased
    23b Your whole body will be darkened
    23c-d If your ultimate purpose is bad, your life will be bad
    23c Therefore, if the light in you is darkness
    23d How severe/total the darkness must be?
    24 You can only have one ultimate master
    24a-e You can't have more than one ultimate master
    24a No one is able to serve two masters
    24b-e He will have greater affection for one master, and the other will be shorted
    24b-c He will have opposite heart affection toward the different masters
    24b Neg: For, he will either hate the one
    24c Pos: and love the other
    24d-e He will have opposite mental evaluation of the different masters
    24d Pos: or he will be devoted to one
    24e Neg: and he will despise the other
    24f You are not able to serve God and worldly wealth
  • 6:25-34 Don't Worry, but Seek the Kingdom
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    25-30 Don't be anxious about unimportant things
    25 Don't be anxious about self-centered things
    25a Because of this, I am saying to you:
    25b-h Don't be anxious about things that are not most important
    25b-f Don't be anxious about nourishment and clothing
    25b-d Don't be anxious about how you will find nourishment for survival
    25b Do not be anxious about your life
    25c-d Specifically: Don't be anxious about food and drink
    25c What you will eat
    25d Or what you will drink
    25e-f Don't be anxious about what you will wear on your body
    25e Neither [be anxious about] your body
    25f Specifically: What you will wear
    25g-h There are more important things than nourishment and clothing
    25g Is not life more than food?
    25h And [is not] the body [more than] the clothing?
    26-30 Don't be anxious, because God provides
    26 Don't be anxious about food, because God provides
    26a-e The example of God's provision from birds
    26a Look carefully at the birds of the air
    26b-e God takes care of feeding them without them being anxious
    26b-d They don't work to provide or worry about their food
    26b That they do not sow seed
    26c Neither do they harvest
    26d Neither do they gather into barns
    26e And your Heavenly Father feeds them
    26f Are you not more valuable than them?
    27 Being anxious does not help in any way
    27a By being anxious
    27b Who of you is able to add one single length to the span of your life?
    28-30 Don't be anxious about clothing, because God provides
    28-29 The example of God's provision from flowers
    28a And why are you being anxious concerning clothing?
    28b-29 Learn from the flowers, that God clothes His creatures
    28b Learn from the lilies of the field
    28c-29 God takes care of clothing them without them being anxious
    28c How they grow
    28d-29 They don't manufacture their clothes, but God clothes them
    28d-e Neg: They do work to make their clothing
    28d They do not toil
    28e Neither do they spin [thread]
    29 Pos: But they are better clothed than Solomon
    29a But I am saying to you:
    29b-c They are clothed better than Solomon
    29b That Solomon in all his glory did not clothe himself
    29c like on of these
    30 God will take care of your clothing, even more than the temporary plants
    30a-c If God takes care of even temporary things in this way
    30a-b If even in the case of temporary things
    30a If existing today
    30b And the next day being thrown into the furnace
    30c In this way God clothes the grass of the field
    30d Will not [He clothe] you much more, one of little faith
    31-34 Therefore, don't be anxious, but trust God and pursue the most important things
    31-33 Therefore, don't be anxious about these things, but seek the things of God
    31-32 Neg: Therefore, don't be anxious about these things
    31 Therefore, don't be anxious about food and clothes
    31a Therefore, do not be anxious
    31b-e Asking about food and clothes
    31b Saying:
    31c-e What will we eat, drink, and wear?
    31c What will we eat?
    31d Or what will we drink?
    31e Or what will we wear?
    32 Reason: These are common needs that God provides to all
    32a For the Gentiles desire all of these things
    32b-c For God knows what you need
    32b For your Heavenly Father knows:
    32c That you have need of all these things
    33 Pos: Seek first God's Kingdom, and you will be provided for
    33a But seek first the Kingdom of God and His righteousness
    33b And all these things will be provided to you
    34 Therefore, don't be anxious for tomorrow, but take care of today
    34a Therefore, do not be anxious for tomorrow
    34b-c Today has enough problems without worrying about tomorrow
    34b Because tomorrow will be anxious for itself
    34c Its own problems are sufficient for each day
7:1-12 The Humble Attitude of the Kingdom
  • 7:1-6 Don't Hypocritically Judge Others
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    1-5 Don't judge with hypocritical/double standards
    1-2 Don't judge with a standard by which you don't want to be judged
    1 Don't judge, so that you won't be judged
    1a Do not judge
    1b Purpose: in order that you will not be judged
    2 You will receive the same standard you use on others
    2a-b You will be judged with the same standard you use on others
    2a For, with which judgment [standard/attitude] you are judging
    2b You will be judged
    2c-d You will receive with the same measure you use on others
    2c And with which measure, you measure/apportion
    2d It will be measured to you
    3-5 Don't judge others without first judging yourself
    3-4 You can't be a good judge unless you first judge yourself
    3 Why do you see other people's problems, but not your own?
    3a Why do you notice the speck/splinter in your brother's eye
    3b And you are not discovering the beam in your eye?
    4 How can you help with other people's problems without fixing your own?
    4a-c How can you help your brother to see?
    4a Or how will you say to your brother?
    4b-c Let me take the speck out of your eye
    4b Permit
    4c I will take the speck/splinter out from your eye
    4d And behold, the beam is in your eye?
    5 Fix your own blindness first, in order to help with your brother's
    5a Hypocrite! First take the beam out from your eye
    5b-c Then you will see clearly to take out the speck
    5b And then you will see clearly
    5c Purpose: in order to take the speck/splinter out from your brother's eye
    6 Don't submit to the judgment of fools and beasts
    6a Do not give a holy thing to the dogs
    6b-e Neither give pearls to pigs, or they will harm them and you
    6b Neither throw your pearls before the pigs
    6c-e Purpose: so that they will not harm them and you as well
    6c In order that they will not trample them under their feet
    6d-e And turn and harm you
    6d And turning around
    6e They will tear you to pieces
  • 7:7-12 The Father's Willingness to Give
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    7-11 Request from God, because He supplies all good things
    7-8 Request what you need from God
    7 Request (from God) and you will receive
    7a-b Ask and it will be given
    7a Ask
    7b And it will be given to you
    7c-d Seek and you will find
    7c Seek
    7d And you will find
    7e-f Knock and it will be opened
    7e Knock
    7f And it will be opened to you
    8 Reason: for requesting is a key part of receiving
    8a For everyone asking is receiving
    8b And the one seeking is finding
    8c And it will be opened to the one knocking
    9-11 Explanation: God gives good things to those who ask Him
    9-10 All humans know how to give proper gifts when asked
    9 Who will give a stone instead of requested bread?
    9a-b Who among you, when your son will ask for bread
    9a Or who is someone among you
    9b Whom His son will ask for bread
    9c He will not give to him a stone?
    10 Or will give a snake instead of a requested fish?
    10a Or he will also ask for a fish
    10b He will not give to him a snake?
    11 Your Heavenly Father knows how to give good gifts better than sinful humans
    11a-c Even evil people know how to give good gifts
    11a Therefore, even though being evil
    11b-c You know how to give good gifts to your children
    11b You know
    11c To give good gifts to your children
    11d How much more will your Father in Heaven give good things to those asking Him
    12 Fulfill the Law by treating people the way you want to be treated
    12a-c Treat other people in the way you want to be treated
    12a-b However you want people to treat you
    12a Therefore, whatever you wish
    12b That people will do to you
    12c In the same way, you also do all things to them
    12d For this is the Law and the Prophets
7:13-27 The Strict Criteria of Salvation
  • 7:13-14 The Narrow Way
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    13a Enter through the narrow gate
    13b-14 Reason: Even though this way is harder, it leads to life, not destruction
    13b-d Neg: The way to destruction is wide and easy, [and many find it]
    13b-c The way is wide and easy
    13b Because the gate is wide
    13c And the way is spacious
    13d [that is - the way] the one leading into destruction
    14 Pos: Few find the way to life, because it is narrow and hard
    14a-b the way to life is narrow and hard
    14a How narrow is the gate!
    14b And the way leading into life is constricted/difficult
    14c And those finding it are few [in number]
  • 7:15-23 Judge a Tree by its Fruit
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    15 Watch out for false prophets
    15a Be on guard against false prophets
    15b-c Reason: They deceptively pretend to be good, but are really dangerous
    15b Pos: who come to you in covering/clothing of sheep
    15c Neg: but on the inside, they are vicious wolves
    16-23 Here is how you will recognize a false prophet
    16-20 You will know false prophets by their fruit
    16-19 They will inevitably produce fruit according to their nature
    16a You will know them from their fruit
    16b-19 Illustration from creation - things produce according to their nature
    16b-18 Things produce according to their nature
    16b-c the fruit never goes against its nature
    16b Surely, people don't gather grapes from thorn-bushes
    16c Nor figs from thistles
    17-18 The fruit is a certain demonstration of its nature
    17 Trees automatically produce according to their nature
    17a Pos: In the same way, every good tree produces good fruit
    17b Neg: But poor-quality trees produce worthless fruit
    18 Trees are unable to produce outside of their nature
    18a Pos: A good tree is not able to produce worthless fruit
    18b Neg: Neither [is] a poor-quality tree [able] to produce good fruit
    19 Every unproductive tree is destroyed
    19a Every tree not producing good fruit is cut down
    19b And it is thrown into fire
    20 Therefore, indeed, you will know them from their fruit
    21-23 Fruit is better evidence than just talk
    21 Actions and truth, not just talk, will determine the Kingdom
    21a Neg: Not everyone saying to me Lord, Lord will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven
    21b Pos: But the one doing the will of my Father in Heaven [will enter]
    22-23 Many will claim to be in the Kingdom, but will not be
    22 Many will claim to be a part of my work
    22a Many will say to me in that day
    22b-d We took part in your work
    22b Lord, Lord, did we not prophecy in your Name?
    22c And we cast out demons in your Name?
    22d And we did many miracles in your Name?
    23 I will refuse to acknowledge them and throw them out
    23a And then, I will confess to them
    23b-c I don't know you and am sending you away
    23b That I never knew you
    23c Depart from me, workers of lawlessness
  • 7:24-27 Not Just Hearing, but Doing Jesus' Words
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    24-25 Pos: The wise way to respond to Jesus' teaching
    24a-b Whoever hears and puts my words into practice
    24a Therefore, everyone who hears these words of mine
    24b And he does them
    24c-25 He is like a wise man succeeding because of his wisdom
    24c He will be likened to a sensible/wise man
    24d-25 Who succeeded because he built in a wise manner
    24d Who built his house upon the rock
    25 And it survived bad weather
    25a-d And bad weather struck the house
    25a-c And bad weather happened
    25a And the rain came down
    25b And the rivers/torrents came
    25c And the winds blew
    25d And it struck against this house
    25e-f It survived, because it had a good foundation
    25e And it did not fall
    25f Reason: because it had been founded upon the rock
    26-27 Neg: The foolish way to respond to Jesus' teaching
    26a-b Whoever hears but doesn't do my words
    26a And everyone hearing these words of mine
    26b And not doing them
    26c-27 He is like a fool who is destroyed because of his foolishness
    26c This one will be likened to a stupid/foolish man
    26d-27 Who came to destruction because he built in a foolish manner
    26d Who built his house upon the sand
    27 And it was destroyed by bad weather
    27a-d And bad weather struck the house
    27a-c And bad weather happened
    27a And the rain came down
    27b And the rivers/torrents came
    27c And the winds blew
    27d And it beat against this house
    27e-f And it fell with complete destruction
    27e And it fell
    27f And its collapse was intense/thorough
7:28-29 The Response to the Sermon
8:1-9:38 The Kingdom is Demonstrated
  • 8:1-4 Healing of a Leper
  • 8:5-13 Faith of a Centurion
  • 8:14-17 Jesus Heals People
  • 8:18-22 Jesus Discourages Half-Hearted Discipleship
  • 8:23-27 Jesus Calms a Storm
  • 8:28-34 Jesus Heals a Demon-Possessed Man
  • 9:1-8 Jesus Heals a Paralytic
  • 9:9-13 Jesus Seeks Sinners
  • 9:14-17 The Old and the New
  • 9:18-26 Jesus Heals a Woman and a Girl
  • 9:27-34 Jesus Heals the Blind and the Mute
  • 9:35-38 Jesus Heals and Tells the Need for Workers
10:1-11:1 Teaching About Apostleship
  • 10:1-4 Jesus Sends Out 12 Leaders
  • 10:5-23 Instructions How to Go Out on Mission
  • 10:24-33 Warning to Fear God More Than Persecution
  • 10:34-42 The Challenge of the Kingdom
11:1-12:50 The Kingdom is Proclaimed
  • 11:1-19 Jesus and John the Baptist
  • 11:20-24 Woe to Cities that Rejected Jesus
  • 11:25-30 Rest for Those to Whom Jesus Reveals the Father
  • 12:1-14 Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath
  • 12:15-21 Jesus' Healing Fulfills Isaiah's Servant Prophecy
  • 12:22-37 Jesus Deflects Accusation re:satan
  • 12:38-45 Greater Judgment for Unbelief
  • 12:46-50 Jesus' Family
13:1-52 Teaching about the Kingdom
  • 13:1-9 The Parable of the Sower
  • 13:10-17 The Reason for Telling Parables
  • 13:18-23 The Parable of the Sower Explained
  • 13:24-30 The Parable of the Weeds
  • 13:31-33 The Parables of Mustard Seed & Yeast
  • 13:34-35 Why Jesus Spoke in Parables
  • 13:36-43 The Parable of the Weeds Explained
  • 13:44-46 The Parables of the Treasure & Pearl
  • 13:47-52 The Parable of the Fishnet
13:53-17:27 The Kingdom Divides - For & Against
13:53-16:4 Jesus Completes His Public Popular Ministry
  • 13:53-58 Jesus is Rejected in His Hometown
  • 14:1-12 John the Baptist is Killed
  • 14:13-21 Jesus Feeds 5000
  • 14:22-33 Jesus Walks on Water
  • 14:34-36 Jesus is Welcomed in Gennesaret
  • 15:1-11 Jesus Corrects Misunderstandings of Purity Laws
  • 15:12-20 Jesus Clarifies the Purpose of Purity Laws
  • 15:21-28 Jesus Heals a Foreign Woman's Daughter
  • 15:29-39 Jesus Feeds 4000
  • 16:1-4 Jesus Confronts a Wicked Demand for a Sign
16:5-17:27 Jesus Moves Toward the Cross
  • 16:5-12 Jesus Warns Against the Teaching of the Pharisees
  • 16:13-20 Jesus Confirms His Identity
  • 16:21-28 Jesus Predicts the Cross
  • 17:1-13 The Transfiguration
  • 17:14-23 Jesus Delivers a Boy from a Demon
  • 17:24-27 Jesus Clarifies About the Temple
18:1-19:1 Teaching about Church Life
  • 18:1-9 Who is the Greatest in the Kingdom?
  • 18:10-14 Parable of the Lost Sheep
  • 18:15-20 Dealing with Sin in the Church
  • 18:21-35 Forgiving a Brother Who Sins Against You
19:1-22:46 Kingdom Opposition and Victory
19:1-20:34 The Kingdom's Counter-Cultural Values
  • 19:1-12 Divorce and Marriage
  • 19:13-15 Jesus and Children
  • 19:16-22 The Rich Young Ruler
  • 19:23-30 Riches and the Kingdom
  • 20:1-16 The Parable of the Hired Workers
  • 20:17-19 Jesus Predicts His Death
  • 20:20-28 Leadership and Servanthood
  • 20:29-34 Jesus Heals Two Blind Men
21:1-27 Jesus Confronts the Jerusalem Leadership
  • 21:1-11 The Triumphal Entry
  • 21:12-17 Jesus Clears the Temple
  • 21:18-22 Jesus Curses a Fig Tree
  • 21:23-27 Jesus Challenges the Leaders About Authority
21:28-22:14 Parables Confronting the Jerusalem Leadership
  • 21:28-32 The Parable of Two Sons
  • 21:33-46 The Parable of the Tenants
  • 22:1-14 The Parable of the Wedding Banquet
22:15-22:46 Controversies with the Jerusalem Leadership
  • 22:15-22 Jesus is Challenged about Taxes
  • 22:23-33 Jesus is Challenged About the Resurrection
  • 22:34-40 Jesus is Challenged About the Law
  • 22:41-46 Jesus Challenges Them About His Identity
23:1-25:46 Teaching about Judgment
23:1-39 Woe to Unfaithful Leadership
  • 23:1-12 The Leaders are Motivated by Pride, Not Service
  • 23:13-14 Woe to Hypocrites Who Keep People From the Kingdom
  • 23:15 Woe to Hypocrites Who Pervert Their Converts
  • 23:16-22 Woe to Blind Guides Who Skew Priorities
  • 23:23-24 Woe to Hypocrites Who Skew Values
  • 23:25-26 Woe to Hypocrites Who Skew the Focus of Morals
  • 23:27-28 Woe to Hypocrites Who Create False Images
  • 23:29-32 Woe to Hypocrites Who Pay Lip Service to Godliness
  • 23:33-39 The Leaders Will be Judged b/c They Reject Salvation
24:1-44 Teaching on the End of the Age
24:45-25:46 Challenge to Live Faithfully in Light of the End
  • 24:45-51 The Faithful Servant
  • 25:1-13 The Watchful Virgins
  • 25:14-30 The Parable of the Talents
  • 25:31-46 The Sheep and the Goats
26:1-28:20 The Kingdom is Realized
26:1-46 The Preparation for His Death
  • 26:1-5 The Leaders Plan to Arrest Jesus
  • 26:6-13 Jesus is Anointed for Burial
  • 26:14-16 Judas Plans to Betray Jesus
  • 26:17-30 The Lord's Supper
  • 26:31-35 Jesus Predicts the Disciples Will Fall Away
  • 26:36-46 Jesus Prays in Gethsemane
26:47-27:26 Jesus' Arrest and Trial
  • 26:47-56 Jesus is Arrested
  • 26:57-68 Trial Before the Sanhedrin
  • 26:69-75 Peter Denies Jesus
  • 27:1-10 Judas Kills Himself
  • 27:11-26 Trial Before Pilate
27:27-66 Jesus' Death and Burial
  • 27:27-31 The Soldiers Abuse Jesus
  • 27:32-44 Jesus is Crucified
  • 27:45-56 Death of Jesus
  • 27:57-61 The Burial of Jesus
  • 27:62-66 The Tomb is Guarded
28:1-20 The Resurrection and Commission
  • 28:1-10 The Resurrection
  • 28:11-15 The Conspiracy to Deny the Resurrection
  • 28:16-20 The Great Commission
    Detailed Outline Expand All + All Collapse All X All
    16-17 The disciples encountered Jesus in Galilee after the resurrection
    16 The eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had instructed them
    Matthew specifically noted the number of disciples as eleven. This is the twelve original disciples minus Judas Iscariot, who had betrayed Jesus, and then killed himself afterward.
    We learn from the other Gospels that the disciples had seen the risen Jesus earlier in Jerusalem. Matthew here informs us that they met the resurrected Jesus in Galilee at a prearranged place. The went to this place, as they had been instructed.
    17 They encountered Him and hesitantly worshipped
    17a-b They saw Him and worshipped
    17a And when they saw Him
    Literally - seeing Him. This is probably a temporal relationship, after they saw Him or when they saw Him
    But there is also implied some sort of cause/effect relationship with the next proposition, they worshipped because they saw Him
    As with the other resurrection appearances recorded in the New Testament, the emphasis is that they actually saw Him. It was not in their imagination or just a metaphorical description. they actually saw the genuine presence of the real Jesus after He had risen from the dead. This explains their response in the next proposition.
    17b They worshipped
    This is an understandable response, but in another sense, it is a totally unexpected response.
    For a faithful Jew, it was unthinkable to bow down in worship to another human being, and so, none of the disciples would ever have done this to anyone else in any circumstance. To worship anything except God would be to break the first and second of God's Ten Commandments, and so the disciples would never do it.
    And yet they did it. This means that they had concluded, because of His resurrection, that Jesus was not just a human. His resurrection had proved that His claims to be equal with God to be true, and so the disciples worshipped Him as God.
    In other words, for a faithful, first century Jew, who was committed to the idea of monotheism - that there is only One God - it was forbidden to worship anything else. And therefore, it likely took some time over the course of their living with Jesus, for the disciples to fully come to the realization that Jesus was equal with God. Because of their commitment to monotheism, they did not conclude that Jesus was a second God, in addition to the Father. But they concluded that Jesus (and the Holy Spirit as well, as we'll see in v. 19) was the SAME God as the Father, Whom they knew as the God of the Old Testament. This is the beginning of the doctrine that would later be called the Trinity.
    17c But some doubted/hesitated
    This word translated doubted or hesitated signifies an uncertainty and hesitancy in the disciples. This is understandable in these circumstances.
    It could mean that they had some doubt about the resurrection - whether they were truly seeing a man alive whom they knew was dead just a few days earlier. It would be natural to be at least somewhat skeptical in these circumstances.
    This could also mean that they hesitated in expressing their worship because it was so counter to their Jewish mores to worship anything beside God. It may have taken some time for them to wrap their minds around the fact that Jesus was God incarnate, and so worshipping Him may have seemed taboo for a while.
    18-20 Jesus' response to the disciples
    18a-c Jesus approached and spoke
    This section is not intended to move the narrative forward as much as it functions to introduce what Jesus said to them, which is the main focus of this passage
    18a And after He approached
    Like seeing Him above, this is literally a bare participle. But it likely has a temporal significance, showing it to be a contemporaneous or slightly earlier action
    18b-c Jesus spoke to them
    18b Jesus spoke to them
    this proposition introduces the act of Jesus speaking, and the next proposition introduces the content of what He spoke. This is a common Hebrew way of introducing dialogue.
    18c Saying:
    This introduces the content of what Jesus said, which covers the rest of this passage
    18d-20 What He said - the Great Commission
    18d-20a Because Christ has all authority, train all nations to live under His authority
    18d All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me
    Jesus claimed all authority. This could have the implication of all kinds of authority, or authority in all kinds of areas. In other words, His authority is broad in spectrum, covering every kind of sphere of influence and authority. This is confirmed by the phrases in heaven and on earth. Jesus has all authority on earth, over human issues and human history. But Jesus also has all authority in heaven, the realm of angels and the dwelling place of God Himself. It is not very shocking for Jesus to claim authority over angels and demons because He had already demonstrated that authority throughout His ministry. But for Jesus to claim all authority in heaven is either to claim to have authority over God, or to claim to BE God. And the latter option is obviously the one He intended. This claim would be absolutely scandalous and blasphemous if it were not true. But His resurrection proved that it is true. It is logically inconsistent to claim to believe what Jesus taught, yet to deny that He was God incarnate, because that is one of His claims.
    Not only does this statement mean that Jesus' authority is comprehensive in scope, it also means that His authority is comprehensive without limit. He has ALL authority. His authority is not limited or shared. There is no authority that He does not have. Jesus, both by His nature as God incarnate, and because of His accomplishments of atonement and resurrection, has all authority. Jesus is sovereign Lord over every area of your life, because He is sovereign Lord over everything in the entire world.
    And in this verse, Jesus said that this authority had been given to Him, presumably by His Father. This authority is formally granted by the one who has the authority to grant this authority. In one sense, Jesus always had this same authority, because He is God. but in another sense, in His new function as the God-Man and leader of the new humanity, this authority was given to Him in His new role as Risen Savior and King, as the result of His accomplishments in the cross and resurrection.
    He now reigns as King over the entire universe. His Kingdom is a real, present reality, even though it is not yet fully consummated.
    19-20a The inference from His Authority - command to make disciples
    This section begins with the word therefore. This means that the command in these verses is a direct result of Jesus having all authority, and His authority is the reason why this command should be obeyed with utmost seriousness and fervency.
    There are four verbal ideas in this section. However, the grammatical forms mark one as the prominent idea, and the other three as being subordinate. The main command is to make disciples, and the other three ideas support this command. They most likely describe the means and manner to be used to make disciples. In other words, they were commanded to make disciples by doing these three other things. The relationship of the subordinate ideas will be discussed in more detail below.
    19a-b the command to make disciples
    19a Therefore, by going
    The idea of going is marked as a subordinate idea to making disciples by the grammatical form used. And yet, it is placed first, which shows emphasis.
    There are two main possibilities how the idea of going is related to the command to make disciples:
    First, it may function as a coordinate command.
    Even though it is not an imperative, it may function as an imperative because of its close connection to the imperative to make disciples. In this case, they would be translated as a series of two commands - Go, and make disciples.
    If this is the case, it emphasizes that the great commission is for the entire world, and so, Christ's people need to take the initiative to reach the entire world. This is true, and world missions is one of the main tasks of the entire church, because there is a worldwide aim of God's blessing, going back to the promise given to Abraham. We are blessed to be a blessing. And we should somehow contribute to the message of Jesus reaching every people group. And logically, this means that the church needs to leave where it is at, and go to where unreached people are, so that they can hear the Gospel.
    However, we need to be careful here to not press this too hard. There are many mission-minded people who will use this verse to speak as if every Christian is sinning if they do not personally go to a foreign nation. And that goes beyond what Jesus is saying here. Not only does Afghanistan need to be discipled, but so does Atlanta. We need to make disciples, not just in New Guinea, but also in New York. We don't just need disciples in the House of Representatives, we need to make disciples in our own houses. And the primary disciple making role for parents is toward their own children. So, this word is never an either/or choice - to go or stay - but it is a both/and, to make disciples wherever we are, and to reach every nation, as is shown in the next proposition.
    It is also possible that this word going functions as attending circumstances in reference to Deuteronomy 6:4-9.
    In the Deuteronomy passage, it refers to parents teaching their children about God when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. In other words, they are to talk about God throughout all the normal activities of daily life. They are to train their children while they are going about their normal business.
    This would mean that Jesus commanded His followers to be making disciples throughout the course of all their everyday activities, as they are going. We should make disciples when we are on the job. We should make disciples when we are at home. we should make disciples at school. Everyone can do this, and every Christian should somehow contribute to doing this.
    Of course, this does not mean that we can neglect our duties toward our work or school in order to make disciples. There is a proper way to do it at work or school, etc. Just like it would not be appropriate for you to be playing golf on company time, but it may be appropriate to mention that you love to play, and invite your co-worker to play a round after work. In the same way, if might not be appropriate to extensively teach about Christ when you should be working. But it would be entirely appropriate to mention Him in the course of normal conversation with co-workers, and invite them to talk about it more outside of the work environment. It would be appropriate to encourage and mentor a co-worker in their discipleship in the midst of ordinary workplace conversation as long as it does not take away from fulfilling your work responsibilities. Every part of life can be used to make disciples. We should make disciples as we are going through life.
    19b Make disciples of all nations
    This is the main command of the great commission, and so it is important to understand what it means to make disciples. Making disciples simply means to help people become disciples. The term making has absolutely no connotation of compulsion or force. Christianity, unlike other religions, cannot be imposed. People must be convinced and led to the truth with the working of the Holy Spirit underwriting all of our disciple making efforts.
    And the term disciple combines the meanings of the words learner and follower. It is somewhat similar to the word apprentice. An apprentice is a person who learns a skill or trade by attaching themselves to a master, following them, working for them, and learning everything about the skill or trade from them. To be a disciple means to follow Jesus and learn from Him. And that raises the question - What do we learn from Jesus? And the answer is Life, the universe, everything! A disciple learns from Jesus in every area of life, because Jesus is Lord of every area of life. We learn from Jesus what life truly is and how we should live it. We learn how to live well. And especially, we learn how to inherit eternal life and live forever in His Kingdom, in relationship with the King. Because Jesus is our creator, it is only fitting that we should learn our created purpose, and how to live it out, from Him. And our created purpose is to know and serve Him.
    And being a disciple means learning from Jesus under His authority, in obedience to His authority, and because of His authority. Remember that the command to make disciples flows directly from the fact that Jesus has all authority in heaven and on earth. And so, being a disciple is directly related to living under the sovereign authority of Jesus. There is no true discipleship without obedience. Now this may seem like a frightful and harsh prospect - to live totally under the authority of someone else. And we are right to resist this kind of total submission to any human. However, we must remember that Jesus is not just another sinful human. He is God incarnate, Whose rule is good and gracious beyond our ability to comprehend. He is a good sovereign, Who has proved that He works for our blessing and benefit. So, it is a delight, rather than a chore, to live under His authority.
    So, making disciples means to teach people about Jesus and train them to know and follow Him in every area of life. Therefore, making disciples is so much more than just making converts or convincing people to join an organization. Making disciples is a comprehensive task that covers every part of a person's life, helping them to experience an overarching change of mind, attitudes, and actions. And most importantly, it means training people into learning directly from Jesus Himself, and following Him with complete loyalty. Because they are to be disciples of Jesus, and not of us, or of our organization.
    This assumes that those who are making disciples will already be disciples, because you cannot teach what you don't know. In order to make disciples, we need to be growing disciples, with a growing knowledge and experience of Who Jesus is, and what He has done. At the same time, we don't need to wait until we are experts before we can begin to make disciples. As long as we are following Jesus ourselves, we can bring others along to the point we have attained, and hopefully we will grow together.
    And this command is to make disciples of all nations. Jesus was not just the Jewish Messiah to restore the Kingdom of Israel. He is the Eternal Son of God, Who restores and reigns over every nation. Obviously, no one is able to personally disciple every nation. But the combined effort of the entire church is to reach every people group on the planet. Again, this is related to the fact that Jesus is Lord over the entire world, and His plan all along was to bless every nation by bringing them under His Kingdom rule. This means that discipleship and disciple making may not be one-size-fits-all. The truth of Christ has been shown to transcend cultures, because Jesus is above every culture. And therefore, discipleship naturally fits and works in every cultural situation. Jesus both challenges and affirms every culture in some ways. And therefore, we must strive to make disciples in a way that makes sense and connect with every culture, bringing it under Christ's Lordship. And we should not just attempt to import one cultural expression of Christianity into another.
    19c-20a The means of making disciples
    These two propositions are related to the command to make disciples by being the means Jesus gave in order to fulfill that command. In other words, if someone were to ask Jesus, How should we make disciples? or What activities should we do in order to make disciples? He would answer by giving these two activities - by baptizing them, and by teaching them to keep my commandments.
    19c Baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit
    The first means that Jesus gave was to baptize people into the name of the Triune God.
    Baptism is a rite of initiation, admitting someone into the community of faith by briefly plunging them under water. It was practiced in the time of Jesus to initiate gentiles into the Jewish faith. And John the Baptist used it as a symbol for repentance and turning back to God. It also had a connotation of washing and purification. Later Paul connected baptism symbolically with death to old life and resurrection to new life. For Christians, baptism is a response to new birth, and serves as a symbol of, and confirmation of the new birth. In the early church, baptism happened after someone had been evangelized and instructed to the point where there was good evidence that they were a genuine believer. Therefore, baptism is being initiated into the Christian community, with new status, rights, and responsibilities.
    Consequently, Jesus' command to baptize assumes telling people the good news and instructing them in the truth about Jesus to the point that they give evidence, not only of understanding, but of believing in Jesus and receiving the new birth. Baptizing people represents a serious commitment to win them to faith in Christ and train them so that they show evidence of being a part of His Kingdom.
    And the command is to baptize people into the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Notice that the word name is singular. There is ONE Name that consists of three phrases, because there is ONE God Who consists of three persons - the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. The baptism formula is trinitarian, and shows that the Father, Jesus, and the Spirit are co-equal in the life of the convert because they are co-equal in the Godhead.
    And this phrase is literally baptize them INTO the name. The phrase into the name was used in Jesus time to represent a change of ownership, or to represent the initiation of a relationship. In either case, the person is baptized as a symbol of a new connection with the Triune Godhead and their dedication to Him, and thereby of their initiation into the people of God, the church, on the basis of their having believed in Jesus and been brought into His Spiritual Kingdom by faith.
    20a Teaching them to keep all of what I commanded you
    The second means which Jesus gave for making disciples was to teach people to keep all that He commanded.
    The word keep, when used in reference to laws, commandments and teaching basically means to obey. But it also has the connotation of persistence - of continuing to obey over the long term. In John 14:15, Jesus said, if you love me, you will obey what I command. And as Paul will stress in later New Testament books, Christians do not obey the Law or God's commands in order to be loved and accepted, or in order to earn salvation and good standing with God. However, Christians do obey God's commands and fulfill the Law, because we have, by God's grace, been given love and acceptance, because we have been saved and put in right standing with God.
    And so, the Christian life is not just knowing the right things. It is also living them out. Knowledge without heart and action is hypocrisy. This kind of knowledge puffs up, but does not build up. And this kind of faith is dead. True knowledge and faith have a decisive impact on our affections and actions. On the other hand, we cannot live it out without having knowledge of the truth. Zeal without knowledge is not good, and usually is counterproductive. Good theology is necessary to live the Christian life.
    Notice that Jesus did not say, Tell them to obey. Even though, it is sometimes helpful, even necessary to command people to do what is right (those with children should agree). And Jesus did not just say, tell them what to obey, although this is a necessary prerequisite to what He was commanding. In this verse, He said, teach them to obey.
    That means that fulfilling the Great Commission involves teaching people what to obey. But more importantly, it involves teaching and modeling HOW to obey. Remember that discipleship is like apprenticeship - where the master tells the apprentice what to do, but also shows them how to do it, and guides them as they learn to do it for themselves, both by learning from the master's instructions, but also, by watching and imitating the master's example. So, teaching people to obey involves personal example and involvement in their lives on a deeper level than just information transfer.
    And this also involves teaching and modeling WHY to obey. Motivation is a key factor in obedience. The disciple's motivation for obedience should include the reality that Jesus is Lord, with all authority in Heaven and on earth. And He will stand in judgment over all creation, including His people. But our motivation also includes the reality that Jesus is Love. He has graciously gone to the cross to rescue us. And He has risen from the grave to give us new life. Jesus is lovingly wise and all-knowing. He has our best interest in mind, and His wise instruction will always lead us in the right way. And Jesus is trustworthy. His way is the best in the long run, even though it is sometimes hard in the sort term. In other words, we are to teach and model what Paul calls the obedience of faith. We obey Christ, because we trust Him. Therefore, a large part of making disciples is proclaiming and reminding people of the Gospel, not just to bring them to Christ, but also to empower them with continual motivation for persistent obedience. It is living out, modeling and proclaiming that I can trust Christ with my obedience today, because He has rescued me from death and hell, and He has proved that he has my best interest in mind.
    We should never expect that people will be trained in obedience without the Gospel, which changes hearts and empowers obedience. The Law will never accomplish obedience, but God's grace leads us to repentance and the obedience of faith. So, Jesus commanded His followers to proclaim the Gospel, to train people, and model how to live in light of what He accomplished by His cross and resurrection. And this, if we truly grasp it, will result in lives of grateful obedience to all that He commanded.
    And it says ALL that He commanded. That includes all the content of the Gospel of Matthew. Remember that Matthew probably wrote his Gospel at least partly to provide a teaching manual as a help in fulfilling this Great Commission. But all that Jesus commanded also includes the rest of the New Testament, and even there rest of the Bible, properly understood in light of the New Testament. This means that we cannot limit Jesus' commands just to the red letters of what Jesus personally said to the first disciples. Because the entire Bible is the Word of God, and is included in all that Jesus commanded us to obey and to train others to obey.
    20b And behold, I am with you always until the completion of the age
    This proposition gives another motivating reason for obeying the command which Jesus had just given. Not only does He have all authority, but He will be continually present to aid and sustain them. It is as if Jesus bookended His final commission to His disciples with two major motivations that would strengthen them to be able to fulfill His command.
    Jesus started this statement with the interjection behold! This is a prompter of attention as well as a marker of emphasis. It was an indication, in essence, to pay close attention to what He was about to say, because it was valid and important. It was as if Jesus put His words in bold print and underlined them, I am with you always until the completion of the age.
    His promise to be with them was not just a promise of His presence, even though that is true. It also has the connotation of supportiveness - that He would be standing by them to help, to act for their benefit. It has the connotation that He will be present on their side, on their behalf.
    Of course, we learn from the other Gospels and Acts that His continued presence would not be exactly like they had known His presence before. He would ascend to Heaven and send the Holy Spirit to be His presence among them. And in John's Gospel, He emphasized that His presence via His Holy Spirit would be more beneficial to the disciples than His earthly presence had been up to that point. And all true disciples can be assured that this promise applies to us as well. Jesus, the One with all authority, is supportively present with us by His Spirit, not only so that we can live the Christian life, but also so that we can fulfill the Great Commission.
    And the time frame of this promise is both intensive and extensive. It is intensive in that He promised to be with them always - all the time. That means every day, and every moment of every day, with no gaps or time periods when He would not be present. His promised presence is not intermittent, but is constant. And this applies to every genuine believer. This means that God is not only concerned and involved in major issues of world politics or climactic events. God is also concerned and involved in the everyday lives of all of His people.
    And His presence is extensive, in that it will last until the completion of this age. That means as long as this present world lasts, Jesus will be present with His people by His Spirit. And, by the way, that does not mean that after the end of this age He will no longer be present. But, as we see in the later New Testament, the completion of this age ushers in the consummation of the next age, when Jesus will be present with His people in an even more immediate and tangible way for all eternity.