The fourth step is to identify and place all dependent clauses.

Relative Clauses

Relative clauses are clauses based around a relative pronoun (who, that, which, whoever, etc.). A relative pronoun is a pronoun that serves a normal pronoun function (subject, object, object of a prepositional phrase, etc.), but also relates itself (relative) to a noun. The function of a relative clause is usually to describe and define that noun to which it is related.

A relative pronoun basically takes two propositions, which both refer to the same entity, and turns them into one sentence by subsuming one of the propositions under the other. In this case, the relative pronoun replaces one of the common terms, and relates both propositions together.

For instance:
The man ran down the street.
The man tripped over a cat.

These two propositions sound somewhat redundant, because the same term occurs in both. These two could be combined, by replacing one of the occurrences of the noun man with the relative pronoun who.

The combined sentence would be:
The man who ran down the street tripped over a cat.

This would be displayed as:

Because relative clauses are modifiers, they are [almost] never considered a separate proposition. But they should be placed as a modifier below the word that is modified.

A relative clause may have a subject, objects, and modifiers like a main sentence.

Relative clauses are fairly common, and you will recognize them easily with a little experience.

There is one special case to watch out for:

Some relative pronouns (whoever, whichever, etc.) are a combination of the relative pronoun and the noun that is modified. Therefore, it is helpful to think of the word whoever... as equivalent to the one who... in order to recognize the function more easily.

whoever loves God...

Would be displayed like:

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