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1:1-11 Introduction and Prayer
1:3-8 ThanksgivingDetailed Outline3-6 I always pray and hope for you all3-5 I always give thanks for you by praying for your partnership in the Gospel3-4a I always give thanksto my Godupon every remembrance/mention of youTo remember and therefore make mentionin all my prayers4b-5 By making prayerson behalf of all of youwith joyabout our fellowship/partnership in the Gospel
fellowship= having something in common, being in common cause
the Philippians partnered with Paul, supporting him logistically, prayerfully, and financiallyfrom the first dayuntil now6 Being convinced that God will finish His good work in you6a Being convinced of this very thing:6b The One beginning a good work in you will complete it until the day of Christ JesusGod will not, cannot fail to bring to a successful completion that which He has started7-8 It is proper for me to think this way about you because I care for you in Christ7a Since for me to think this about all of you is right
rightin the sense of proper, justified, appropriate, proven7b-8 Reason: I care for you deeply in my heart7b Because I have you in my heart7c-8 Reason: You're my partners and I care for you7c Because you are all being fellow sharers of grace with me
fellow sharersis a related word to
fellowshipin v. 5In my imprisonmentIn the defense and establishment/confirmation of the Gospel8 And because I have a strong affection for you in Christ8a God is my witnessA formula that emphasizes the truth of what follows8b As I have a strong affection/yearning for all of you in the affection/compassion of Christ JesusThe affection/compassion which Christ has, He has implanted in Paul toward the Philippians
1:9-11 ThanksgivingDetailed Outline9a I am praying this:9b-11 What Paul is praying and why9b That your love may abound more and more with knowledge and all discernment
aboundhas the implication of being more than what is expected
discernmentis the ability to perceive clearly and therefore to understand the real nature of something as opposed to its appearance or propaganda10-11 The result is that you will discern/approve what matters most and be blameless and pure10a That you may discern and approve what matters most
discern(different word than in v. 9) means drawing a conclusion based on testing, with the result that it has passed the test and therefore is approved by testing
what matters mostmeans what is superior, having more worth. It is not always an issue of good vs. bad, but sometimes it is good vs. best. Don't settle for second best, hold out for, and pursue the best option.10b-11 So that you may be pure and blameless, filled with the fruit of righteousness10b-11a So that you may be pure, filled with righteousness10b So that you may be pure and blameless for the day of Christ
purehas the connotation of sincere, without guile, hypocrisy or pretense
blamelessmeans being without fault because of not giving any ground for offense11a By being filled with the fruit of righteousness that comes through Jesus11b Purpose: to the glory and praise of God
1:12-26 The Gospel is not Hindered
1:12-18c The Gospel is proclaimed because of Paul's chains
1:18d-26 Paul's desire that Christ is glorified in all circumstances
1:27-2:30 Live Worthy of the Gospel
1:27-30 Conduct yourself in a manner worthy of the GospelDetailed Outline27a Only live as citizens appropriately of the Gospel of Christ
worthy/appropriately of the Gospel,not in the sense of deserving, but in the sense of appropriate, fitting - matching what is suitable and right
live as citizensmeans to conduct one's life with reference to one's obligations to others
The city of Philippi was an official Roman colony and therefore, its people were granted citizenship in Rome - a privilege they took seriously, with a lot of pride. Paul uses this to urge them to take their citizenship in the Kingdom of God as seriously, by living in a way that is appropriate for that Kingdom.27b-30 Purpose: so that you will live rightly and I will hear about it27b-e So that I am hearing the [good] things about you27b-d No matter if I am present or absentOn Paul's presence and absence, cf. 2:12, Col. 2:5
Paul's usual method was to stay in a place, planting a church until he was forced to leave, or until the church was healthy. Then he would move on to plant churches in other places. Then he would keep in contact with the churches via letter and also occasionally visit them as circumstances allowed.27b-c Whether coming and seeing you27b So that, either coming27c And seeing you27d Or being absent/far away27e I am hearing the things about youAlmost certainly, Paul heard news about them through Epaphroditus, when he came to Paul to deliver the gift from the Philippians (see 4:18)27f-30 Specifically, what I am hearing27f That you are standing in one [unified] spirit
standingmeans firmly holding conviction in belief and conduct
Unity is a theme for this section and the next27g-30 Specific ways that they are now and are to continue standing firm in unityWhat follows is 3 items in parallel construction, describing the manner in which they are to stand firm in unity27g Toiling together with one soul, for the faith of the Gospel
with one soulis emphasized by its position in the sentence. It means unity in mind, feelings, and will - all parts of the human personality. cf. Acts 4:32
toiling togetheris a term with two components - 1) to contend/struggle/toil, which implies opposition, and 2) this struggle is done along with others doing the same, cf. 4:3
the faith of the Gospelis a phrase occurring only here in the New Testament. It means either
the 'faith' which is proclaimed in the Gospelor
for the sake of people having faith, as the result of the proclamation of the Gospel.28-29 Not being intimidated, but trusting God in suffering28a Not being intimidated in anything by those opposing youIn Acts ch. 16, we learn of the opposition to the church in Philippi. This opposition apparently continued after Paul left town. And here we learn that the church did not give in to this intimidation.
But this is also an encouragement from Paul to continue resistance to any intimidating actions or circumstances28b-29 This is God's plan and proves you are on God's side28b-c This is proof of their destruction and your salvationThe church's upright, unified behavior in the midst of opposition testifies to their God, their ultimate vindication, and the futility of all opposition to God's sovereign plan28b Neg: Which is to them proof of destruction28c Pos: but [proof of] your salvation28d-29 Your standing firm under intimidation is part of God's plan28d This is from God
thisis almost certainly referring to their standing firm under suffering
For Paul to assure them that their suffering is not outside of God's control would be very assuring, as well as strengthening them for continued standing29 Reason: God has given you both to believe and to suffer29a Because this is granted to you on behalf of Christ
grantedhas the connotation of graciously given, cf. 2:9
Suffering for Christ is s privilege given by God, and will eventually reap great rewards29b-c to believe in Him and suffer for Himthese two are parallel, strongly suggesting that their faith is granted by God as much as their suffering29b Not only to believe in Him29c But also to suffer on behalf of Him30 Struggling/fighting after my example30a Having the same struggle/fightPaul highlights the similarity of what they are going through with what he is going through30b-c Which you know I have and am going through30b You saw the same kind [of struggle] in me30c and you now are hearing [about the struggle] in meThey are hearing about his situation [including his struggles] through the previous section of this letter
2:1-11 Follow Christ's example in serving the interest of othersDetailed Outline1 Grounds: Because these things are true1a Therefore, If/since there is any encouragement in Christ1b If/since there is any consolation of love1c If/since there is any fellowship of spirit1d If/since there is any affection and compassion2-11 Give me joy by having the other-serving attitude which Christ demonstrated2a Fulfill my joy2b-11 Manner: How you can make my joy full:2b-4 Have a unified, serving attitude2b That is - you all should have the same mindset/attitude2c-4 Specifically: Have an other-serving attitude2c-e Have the same united, loving, mindset2c Having the same love2d Being united in spirit2e Having a mindset/attitude of unity3 Don't be selfish, but consider others more important3a-b Pos: Don't act out of selfishness and pride3a [do] nothing according to selfish strife3b neither according to vain pride3c Neg: but with humility consider one another to be of more value/more important than yourself4 Don't focus on yourself, but care for others4a Neg: Each [of you] not [only] focusing on/paying attention to your own matters/concerns4b Pos: But each [of you] also [focusing on/paying attention to] the matters/concerns of others5-11 Imitate the mindset/attitude of Christ5 Have THIS mindset/attitude in you, which was also in Christ Jesus6-11 Like Jesus put others first, and therefore, God exalted Him6-8 Even though He had the right to be first, He put others first6a Even though He exists in the exact form of God6b-8 He didn't behave selfishly, but humbled Himself6b Neg: He did not consider being equal with God something to be selfishly grasped7-8 Pos: Rather, He humbled Himself7 He humbled Himself by taking on humanity7a But He emptied Himself7b-d How He emptied Himself - He took on human nature7b Taking the form of a servant7c becoming into the likeness of a human7d and being found in outward appearance as a human8 He humbled Himself even unto death8a He humbled Himself8b-c Becoming obedient unto death on a cross8b becoming obedient unto death8c even [becoming obedient unto] death on a cross9-11 Therefore, God exalted Him above everything9 Therefore, God exalted Him and gave Him the Highest Name9a Therefore, God also exalted Him to the highest height9b And He granted to Him the Name which is beyond every name10-11 Purpose: So that everyone will acknowledge Him as Lord10 So that every knee - in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth - will bow at the Name of Jesus11 And every tongue will confess Jesus is Lord11a And every tongue will confess to the glory of God the Father11b That Jesus Christ is Lord
2:12-18 Work out your salvation because God works
2:19-30 The example of Timothy and Epaphroditus
3:1-4:1 Stand Firm in the Gospel
3:1 Rejoice in the LordDetailed Outline1a Finally, my brothers, rejoice in the Lord
rejoiceis a key word in Philippians. Paul uses it in 1:18, 2:17, 18, 28, 4:4, 10 as well as in this passage.
Joy is a normal characteristic of a thoughtful Christian, not because of outward circumstances (which change often), but because of the truth of what Christ has accomplished, and its result for the inward circumstances and eternal destiny of the Christian.1b-c Writing this is no harm to me, and does you good.Paul addresses the motivation for his writing. It is not a negative for him, and it is potentially a positive for them. This is not so much a contrast between these two realities, as a 'both/and'. It is a good thing on both ends, for both parties.
This affectionate language is a reflection of the great relationship between Paul and this church.
This section may refer backward to
rejoice,but in light of the idea of safety in 1c, it may also refer ahead to the warning in 3:2-111b It is not bothersome to me to write these things to you
bothersomehas the connotation of something that would cause someone to hesitate, to be reluctant. Paul, by using the understated negative of this idea, probably means something like,
not only is it not a bother, it is a joy, a privilege for me to write these things1c And it is a safe thing for you
safe thinghas the connotation of a safety/security feature, a safeguard like a guardrail. Hopefully it is not necessary to state this, but just in case, Paul will say it for their spiritual protection
3:2-11 Glory in Christ, not the fleshDetailed Outline2 Beware of those opposed to the way of ChristThis is probably a reference to Jewish teachers who tried to convince Gentile Christians to follow the Jewish Law and traditions, claiming that they are necessary for the Christian life. This same kind of opponents plagued Paul in many other of the churches he started. The entire Book of Galatians was written to deal with exactly this issue.
Paul warns the Philippians to be on the lookout for these types of people, obviously to resist/reject their teaching2a Look out for the dogs
dogsis an insult in the Jewish culture, because dogs were considered unclean2b Look out for the evildoers2c Look out for those who mutilate the flesh
mutilate the fleshis an ironic wordplay on circumcision, which Paul argues could result in spiritual destruction as well as physical damage.
See the book of Galatians for Paul's teaching on whether Gentile Christians should undergo the rite of circumcision, and the theological reasons for his answer.3-11 Reason: We are those who are the true followers of Christ3a For we are the circumcisioni.e. the true circumcision, of the heart, not just flesh, cf. Deut. 30:6, Rom. 2:29, Col. 2:113b [We are] those serving by the Spirit of God
servingrefers to the carrying out of religious duties. This refers to good religious actions in contrast to the useless/harmful religious activities recommended by the opponents. There are ways to worship and serve God that are God-given and pleasing to Him. There are also ways which are human inventions, which are not pleasing to God.
And the difference Paul highlights is that the good actions are motivated and empowered by God's Spirit.3c-11 We are those who boast/put our confidence in Christ3c-d General statement: We put our confidence in Christ, not in the flesh3c Positive: and [we are] boasting in Christ Jesus
boastingis to take pride and to have confidence in something. We all have something (or things) that we think about which make us feel good about ourselves - something that we have accomplished or that we identify with in some way (even if it is just a sports team). And we put our hope in the possibility that it will continue to cause good things in our life. Most things will eventually disappoint us.
But Paul emphasizes that His basis for hope, identity, and confidence is Christ Himself, who will never disappoint.3d Negative: and [we are] not putting confidence in fleshNotice that Paul does not say
in the fleshwhich might be taken to mean
in ourselves,but he says
in fleshwhich means that he has no confidence in any part of humanity, including himself.4-11 Specific example and application from Paul's life4-6 Negatively: Paul doesn't put any value on his fleshly accomplishments4a Disclaimer: Although I [could be] having confidence in fleshPaul could put confidence in the flesh from a worldly point of view, based on his experiences, background, and accomplishments. Paul only brings this up to show how foolish it is to put confidence in even the highest of human attainments, compared with the alternative of putting confidence in Christ.4b-6 the explanation of what Paul could put confidence in:4b Rhetorical comparison: If someone else thinks [they have reason] to put confidence in fleshNotice how Paul has repeated the phrase
confidence in fleshthree times in the last three propositions.
Paul compares himself to his opponents. His life could meet any standard they teach, but he knows that no human standard is high enough to meet God's standard. And so, Paul insists on a completely different standard, the standard of Christ's righteousness, given through faith.4c-6 Rhetorical response: I have more reason for confidence in the flesh4c General statement: I have morePaul is claiming to beat his opponents, even on their standards. He does not do this to give credence to his opponent's standards, but as a setup for the following contrast - that even the best of human achievement pales in comparison to Christ's righteousness.5-6 Specific examples of his reasons5a-d List of reasons considered absolutelyThis first list describes Paul's personal heritage as a model Jew5a being circumcised on the eighth dayFrom birth, Paul followed the Law by initiation into Israel's covenant sign, cf. Gen. ch. 175b being from the people of Israel5c being from the tribe of Benjamin5d being a Hebrew of Hebrewsthis probably refers to the fact that Paul was a native Hebrew speaking Jew, i.e. the epitome of Jewish heritage5e-6 List of reasons according to a standardThis second list emphasizes Paul's track record of Law keeping and personal righteousness according to Jewish standards5e According to the Law - a PhariseePharisees were the strictest sect in observing the Law6a According to zeal - persecuting the churchPaul's zeal for the Law led him to persecute those who he thought transgressed, dishonored, or disregarded the Law6b According to righteousness by Law - being blamelessPaul goes so far as to claim that he was perfect as far as the requirements of the Law7-11 Positively: Paul puts no value on those things, but absolutely all value on knowing Christ7 I have considered these things to be disadvantage/loss compared to Christ7a Which things [once] were [considered] advantage/gain to me
gainrefers to any kind of profit, benefit, or advantage. cf. 1:21
Paul once thought these things listed above were important because they gave him an advantage in his relationship with God.7b I have concluded these things are disadvantage/loss for the sake of Christ
concludedrefers to a mental process of consideration. But the tense of the verb highlights that the process is finished, and the result of the process is settled -
I now hold this opinion as the result of the process of thinking it through
disadvantage/lossis obviously the opposite idea of
advantage/gainin 7a. This could mean that Paul considers himself to have lost all of these things as a result of being in Christ. In this case, he would say that he does not miss it at all. But it more likely means that Paul now considers these things to be of no advantage, to the point that they may even be a detriment if they at all take away from the new thing (Christ) that is of all advantage by comparison. This may be slight exaggeration to say these things are disadvantage instead of saying that they are of no advantage. But in light of the infinite advantage of Christ, to say these things are of no advantage would be to understate the reality.
for the sake ofcould be translated
because of,in which case it would mean that the past reality of Christ results in Paul's conclusion and attitude. This is doubtlessly true, but it is probably not the meaning and emphasis here. It could be translated
for the sake ofand mean
for the benefit of Christ and/or His cause.This is certainly possible, and Paul says something similar in other places (e.g. Col. 1:24-25). But in the context of the following verses, it most likely means
for the sake ofin the sense of
the reason why I do this is the possibility of experiencing Christ.In this case, the ideas of reason and purpose are blurred in this preposition, which also occurs with the same sense in 8a and 8b.8a-b I consider all things to be disadvantage, loss compared to Christ8a But, more than that, I also consider all things to be disadvantage/loss for the sake of the surpassing greatness of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my LordThis proposition is partially a repeat of the previous one, but Paul emphasizes that he is taking the argument a step further by saying
more than that,and also with two major differences:First, Paul emphasizes that, not only the things listed above, but absolutely every thing else is considered loss compared to Christ.
Second, Paul gives the reason why he considers all things to be loss - because of the surpassing greatness of the knowledge of Christ.
surpassing greatnesshas an inherent connotation of being better compared with something else -
to surpass in value, to be better.And the thing which is of surpassing value is the knowledge of Christ Jesus. Paul will elaborate more precisely what he means by this phrase down in v. 8d through the end of this passage in v. 11.8b [That is-] I have suffered the loss of all things for the sake of HimThis proposition is similar to the previous two. The major difference, which is the point of this proposition, is that Paul not only considers all these things to be loss, but he also has actually lost all things. Paul has given up on any claim and confidence in anything from his past life, and has experienced living with no continuing connection with them.8c-11 I consider [all things] to be rubbish, in order to gain Christ8c And I consider [all things] to be rubbish
rubbishis a polite translation of a word which literally means
crap/dung.Paul is not exaggerating, but showing how drastic the difference is between any human merit and the merit of Christ being compared as being reasonable grounds for confidence.8d-11 Purpose - so that I may gain Christ and be found in Him and know HimAll that follows describes Paul's purpose in rejecting all the things that he has just described as loss and rubbish. He does so for the purpose of gaining the One Who is better by far.8d-9 So that I may gain Christ and His righteousness by faith8d So that I may gain Christ
gainis a verb related to the noun used above (v. 7a). And it has the sense of somehow acquiring Christ, and all the benefits that are in Him. Paul has traded up - exchanging all that he once had and hoped in for the One Who is worth more than everything else combined. See Matt. 13:449 And benefit from receiving His righteousness by faith9a And be found in Him
foundis a generic term. In this context, it has the connotation of being the object of the judgment and evaluation of another (presumably God & Christ), and to receive a particular evaluation - similar to someone being
foundto be innocent in a court decision. When the final evaluation is given, Paul wants to be found
in Christ) is a formula often found in Paulcf. 3:14, 4:19, Rom. 6:11, 23, 8:1, 39, 12:5, 1 Cor. 1:4, 5, 30, 4:17, 15:18, 19, 22, 2 Cor. 1:19, 2:14, 17, 5:17, 19, 21, 12:19, 13:4, Gal. 2:17, 3:28, 5:6, Eph. 1:3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 2:6, 7, 10, 13, 21, 22, 3:6, 11, 12, 4:21, 32, Col. 1:2, 17, 28, 2:6, 7, 10, 11, 17, 3:3, 1 Thes. 1:1, 2:14, 4:14, 16, 5:18, 2 Thes. 1:12, 1 Tim. 1:14, 2 Tim. 1:1, 9, 13, 2:1, 10, 3:12, Philem. 6, 8, 20, 23.It refers to things, benefits, and people that are in the sphere identified with, and controlled by Christ.
This concept is sometimes referred to as
corporate solidarity.It is similar to every citizen of a country having the same rights and responsibilities as a consequence of being a citizen in that country. For instance, if the country goes to war, technically, every citizen is at war (whether they participate or not).
In the same way, Jesus is the King. And there are many benefits, responsibilities, and blessings in the sphere of Christ's rule, because of Christ's accomplishments. Therefore, every person who has been converted into the sphere of Christ, by being converted to Christ, is now
in Christ.To be in Christ is somehow to participate in all that Christ is and has done. And this is Paul's purpose. And he will elaborate on some of the benefits of being in Christ throughout the rest of this passage.9b-d Not by my own righteousness, but by Christ's, through faithThis next section elaborates and explains what Paul means by being
found in Christ.To be found in Christ means to have Christ's righteousness and not to rely on one's own righteousness through good works or heritage.
This section is obviously a contrast between two approaches to righteousness - one which Paul rejects (connected with those things that he now accounts as loss/dung), and one which he pursues (connected with gaining Christ and being found in Him)9b Neg: not having my own righteousness from the Law
righteousnessis always a legal term - meaning to be on the right side, or having the right standing in terms of right and wrong. Paul has already rejected reliance on his won heritage or history of keeping the law, not because these things are bad in themselves, but (as he teaches elsewhere, see e.g. Gal. ch. 3 and Rom. ch. 10) they have never been, and never will be enough to merit any standing with God. Therefore, Paul will put no confidence in flesh. And the primary reason Paul rejects reliance on his own righteousness is that it is loss compared with the righteousness of Christ that is available to him by grace through faith (see 9c-d).9c-d Pos: rather, having the righteousness from God through faith in Christ9c But [having] the [righteousness] through faith in ChristRather than relying on his own righteousness, Paul relies on the righteousness that he has through faith in Christ. The following proposition clarifies that this righteousness is not from Paul, but it is a result of him being in Christ by grace through faith.9d The righteousness from God upon faithThis proposition may seem like repeated information (which it partially is), but it is elaborating and clarifying the nature of this righteousness by adding two phrases: it is from God, and it is given on the basis of faith.
from Godshows that God is the ultimate source of the righteousness which Paul has received. He is the source in more than one sense. First, the righteousness is the righteousness of Christ, who is God. Second, God is the One Who pronounces (reckons/imputes) this righteousness to Paul, on the basis of Christ's righteousness. And finally, God is the One Who bestows this righteousness by faith as a gift, not because of any merit in Paul (or in us).
upon faithhighlights faith as the means or basis by which Paul receives this righteousness. cf. Acts 3:16 where this same wording is used. See Rom. chs. 3-4 and Gal. chs. 3-4 for a further explanation of how righteousness comes through faith (but not primarily because of faith).10-11 So that I may fully experience His death and resurrectionthese two verses continue to elaborate the purpose of 8c, telling why Paul counts all things as dung. As such, these verse are parallel to 8d-9.
to gain Christ and be found in Himis the same overall concept described by
to know Him and the power of His resurrection and the fellowship of His suffering, even though, obviously, Paul emphasizes two different aspects of his purpose in the two different sections.10a [in order] to know Him, and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferingThis proposition has three parts corresponding to the three things which Paul says he wants to know.
to know Himhas the connotation of a personal knowing. It is more than (but not less than) knowing about Christ. It means to have a continuity of relationship and a growing relationship. Obviously, by this point of his life, Paul knew Christ. But he is still pressing to know Christ further, and in a deeper way. He will address his desire to press forward in this dynamic in vv. 12-14. And part of what it means to know Christ personally is elaborated in the next two parts of this proposition.
[to know] the power of His resurrectionalso has the connotation of a more personal, experiential knowledge. Paul wants to (more and more) experience resurrection power. From the rest of Paul's writings, we can surmise that he does not here mean just a naked demonstration of miraculous power. For Paul, the resurrection is not just about extraordinary power, which most of Paul's readers already assumed that God had. But resurrection power is primarily about changed lives and experiencing the life of the next age, which Christ has procured and of which He is the firstfruits. Paul will often describe this kind of life in ethical terms, such as joy, peace, and love, similar to the fruit of the Spirit described in Gal. ch. 5. When someone's mindset and lifestyle is radically changed to conform to God's Kingdom priorities and ethics, Paul would see this as a demonstration of Christ's resurrection power.
[to know] the fellowship of His sufferingsalso has the connotation of a more personal, experiential knowledge. Paul often emphasized that Christians should not expect to experience the blessings of the resurrection without also experiencing the suffering and death of Christ (see 2:1-11 as well as Rom. 8:18).
fellowshipmeans a close sharing in something, involving close mutual relationship and association. Paul has elsewhere (Col. 1:24-25) spoken of somehow experiencing Christ's suffering. By this Paul does NOT mean that he somehow contributes tot he atonement which Christ attained at the cross. Rather, he means that, like Christ suffered on our behalf, Paul will imitate the willingness to suffer for the sake of delivering the message of Christ and serving others. Notice how this repeats the sentiment of 2:1-11.10b-11 Sharing in His death and resurrectionAs typical for Paul, Christ's death and resurrection go together very closely.10b Being conformed to His death
being conformedmeans being brought into a similarity of form or style. Notice that this is a passive verb ("being conformed") not active ("conforming"). Paul wants his own life and experience to be caused to be like Christ's death. He may have a role to play in this, but the real initiative and power for this must come from God.
This is most likely referring to the attitude of self-sacrifice on behalf of others, which characterized the death of Christ. It could also mean that he want to be brought into more and more experience of the benefits of Christ's death. It definitely does not refer to any of Paul's activity having any atoning significance.
In any case, its meaning must take into account the reality of Paul being
in Christand thereby sharing in all the benefits and responsibilities of what Christ accomplished by His death.11 If perhaps I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.
attainmeans to arrive at the experience of the intended goal
resurrectionis a different word than usual, and probably has the connotation of coming to fullness of life
Paul's ultimate goal is to fully experience all the new life that Christ has provided through His own death and resurrection.
3:12-16 Press toward the goal
3:17-4:1 Stand firm in the Lord
4:2-19 Exhortations and Thanks
4:2-3 Have the same mind as one another
4:4-9 Think about and practice what is good
4:10-19 Thanks for the gift